Useful Tips

APA style


Since this standard of link omnipresentation is the most common for magazines indexed in the Scopus database, we provide information about it.

Italics in the examples are mandatory (this is the name of the book or the title and volume (but not the number!) Of the journal).

1. Books of foreign authors

Hesse, K. (1962). Der unitarische bundesstaat. Karlsruhe: C.F. Müller.

Hintze, O. (1962). Wesen und Wandlung des modernen Staates. In G. Oesterreich, Staat und Verfassung. Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Allgemeinen Verfassunsgeschichte (pp. 470-496). Göttingen: Publisher.

2. Books of Russian authors

The same thing at the end (in Russ.).

There is no transliteration, everything is in English!

3. Articles in scientific journals that appear in English:

- everything is in English, if the article has a DOI, we indicate it (as an Internet link), if not, do not indicate it.

Blejer, M. I. (2006). Economic growth and the stability and efficiency of the financial sector.Journal of Banking and Finance, 30(12), 3429-3432. doi: 10.1016 / j.jbankfin.2006.06.001

Rahman, S., & Wu, Y.J. (2011). Logistics outsourcing in China: the manufacturer-cum-supplier perspective. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 16(6), 462-473.


Surname, Initials - in English (year of publication) article title - in English. Journal name - transliteration (Journal name - English translation), journal volume(journal number), page. (in Russ.).

Vertakova, Yu. V. (2015). Taxonomic assessment of innovation economy branch development: a synthesis of methodological approaches. Izvestiya Yugo-zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta.Seriya: Ekonomika. Sotsiologiya. Management(Southwest State University Bulletin. Series of Works: Economy. Sociology. Management), 2, 51-59. (in Russ.).

Plotnikov, V., & Chaplina, A. (2010) .Process-oriented system of managing competitiveness of Russian consumer market players. Problemy sovremennoi ekonomiki (The Problems of Modern Economics), 2,140-146. (in Russ.).

5. References to dissertations (both Russian and any others):

Ganchin, V. V. (2012). Development of project innovation development management methods in electric power industry (Doctoral dissertation). St. Petersburg State University. St. Petersburg. (in Russ.). this ismeans:thesisorabstractcandidatedissertationsGanchinaAT.AT.,protectedatSPbSU,citySaint-Petersburg.

6. Links to the journal “Economic Clock-XXI”:

Bilorus, O. H. (2013). Global neo-convergence of transitive and transformative socio-economic systems. Ekonomicnij casopis-XXI(Economic Annals-XXI), 11-12(1), 3-7. Retrieved from (in Russ.)

7.Links to sources from the Internet:


It is used in English-language research publications in such fields as psychology, business, criminology, economics, pedagogy (including applied linguistics), sociology.


The work, written in accordance with the recommendations of the APA, contains:

  1. Home page
  2. Annotation
  3. The main part
  4. Sources of literature
  5. Conclusion
  6. Footnotes
  7. Tables on separate pages each
  8. Charts on separate pages each

Why do I need links

Any scientific work uses sources that must be indicated. This should be done not only with direct citation, but also with indirect, otherwise the author of the essay may be accused of plagiarism. In addition, your scientific work itself may well become a source for one of your readers, so they should have an idea of ​​where you got the information from. Modern computer programs allow you to make links without much hassle.

In-text links

This type of link is now rarely used, but you need to know about its existence. In-text links are placed inside the text immediately after the quote. They are usually marked with parentheses. The text of the link includes the author’s surname and initials, the name of the work, the city (or its abbreviated name), the name of the publisher, year, page of work. In a small abstract with a small number of citations, you can use this type of link.

Subscript Links

This type of link is the most popular. You can issue such a footnote in any modern text editor. Most of the scientific work is written in Microsoft Word. Place the cursor in the desired place in the text (for example, after a quote). Go to the program menu. Select the "Insert" tab, find the line "Link", and then - "Footnote". Click on it. You will see a window in which you can select the type of footnote. Select the one at the bottom of the page. You will see a thin line below, exactly the same as that found in books, and at the place where the cursor is located - a small box in which the footnote number is automatically stamped. This box will not be visible on print. Under the thin line, enter the same data as when creating the inline footnote.


Footnotes can be located not only at the bottom of each page, but also at the end of a section or even the entire work. Go to the menu "Insert - Link - Footnote" as in the previous case. The same window will appear, just select another line - "endnotes". Nearby you will see a window in which you need to choose where the links will be located - at the end of the section or at the end of the document.