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Prostate Cancer Treatment


As with other types of oncology, prognosis for prostate cancer depends on the degree of tumor spread at the time of diagnosis.

To identify, describe in a personal map the degree of cancer prevalence, specialists use a special classification.

Degrees of cancer

The stages of prostate cancer depend on the spread, size and characteristics of the neoplasm.

In medicine, the following stages of prostate cancer are distinguished:

  • first stage: in this case, cancer is spread only in the prostate gland, is microscopic. With a rectal digital examination, it is impossible to feel the neoplasm. On the images of the prostate gland it is also not visible,
  • second stage: the neoplasm begins to grow in the prostate gland, but still does not spread beyond the borders of the organ,
  • third stage: cancer spreads beyond the prostate (slightly). Cancer in this case affects nearby organs (e.g. seminal vesicles),
  • fourth stage: cancer metastases to the prostate gland to other organs, tissues. As a rule, in this case, the disease spreads to the bones, lymph nodes, liver, and also to the lungs.

The degree of malignancy allows you to determine the type of cancer cells, as well as their growth rate. Identification of the degree of malignancy is carried out after a biopsy (collection and thorough examination of the tissue).

How is prostate cancer treated?

Features of the treatment of prostate cancer depends on the stage of development of the pathology, the type of tumor. The disease, which is detected at an early stage, not spreading to other organs, is well treatable. The following will describe the most popular, common methods of treatment of the disease in question.

Surgical treatments

If the disease is detected in the early stages, one of the most common, effective methods of treatment is surgery. The most gentle, harmless option is laparoscopic intervention.

In this case, the removal of the prostate is performed through small incisions. Thus, the risk of complications after surgery is reduced. The procedure is tolerated by a man much easier.

Radical prostatectomy involves surgical removal of the entire prostate gland, as well as adjacent tissues, seminal vesicles, lymph nodes, and pelvic bones.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a treatment method that is often prescribed as an adjunct to surgery. In this case, we can talk about external radiotherapy (the patient is located under the emitter).

Some patients are prescribed internal radiation therapy. In this case, special granules (radioactive) are introduced into the patient’s body. Radiation therapy (external) has its own classification.

Oncologists at the same time strive to minimize the harmful effects of radiation on the body. Therefore, it makes sense to direct the radiation stream to the tumor as soon as possible. They resort to 3D conformal radiation therapy, as well as to proton radiation therapy. These approaches have their advantages and disadvantages.

Radiotherapy often leads to erectile dysfunction, persistent urination disorders.

Internal radiation therapy enhances the effect of radiation by reducing the distance from the radiation source to the cancer cells. The granules used for the procedure contain palladium, radioactive iodine and other chemicals.

They are capable of exerting influence on surrounding tissues for a long time. Depending on the method of exposure, the granules can be in the body for a long period of time.

How to defeat cancer with hormonal drugs?

Treatment of prostate cancer with hormones includes the removal of male sex hormones from the body. The most important of these is testosterone. The production of this substance is carried out by the testes.

In most cases, a malignant tumor is hormone-sensitive. In other words, testosterone provides neoplasm growth.

With a decrease in the effect of this hormone on the prostate, cancer can be stopped. Hormone treatment is prescribed when there is a recurrence of prostate cancer after surgery, radiation therapy.

If there is damage to the lymph nodes, as well as bones, this type of treatment is considered the best option. The advantages of this method include the operational decrease in testosterone levels. In the process of hormone therapy through injections, drugs are introduced, which are usually called analogues of the pituitary hormones.

Latest news on new ways to fight cancer

One of the newest approaches to the treatment of oncology is immunotherapy. Experts considered it necessary to stimulate the patient's immune system.

Recently it became known that microparticles of iron oxide can help in the treatment of cancer. For this, the method of magnetic biodetection is used.

It allows you to identify the characteristics of the body to respond to a magnetic field from the outside. Researchers have also been able to confirm the possibility of using nanoparticles of iron oxides. Due to the application of the electromagnetic field, the microcomponents of the compounds located in the tumor cells are heated and then destroy the metastases.

Can prostate cancer in men be completely cured?

It can harm the prostate, as well as other organs located nearby.

The formation of pathogenic tissues occurs from the epithelial cells of the prostate. If you do not go to the treatment of the disease immediately, in the process of development, the disease will give metastases. In this case, other important organs of the male body will be affected.

For this reason, therapy must be carried out in the early stages. At the initial stage, the probability of a successful outcome increases significantly. To detect a developing tumor, it is important to be examined regularly, as well as take tests.

After all, the pathology, which is in the early stages, is practically not accompanied by vivid symptoms. The patient often does not even suspect the presence of a dangerous ailment. The disease in the third as well as the fourth stage can be treated much worse. In this case, facilitating palliative therapy is prescribed.

In what cases can one hope for a complete cure?

In modern oncology, the prognosis for detecting prostate cancer in the first stages is the most favorable.

The survival of the patient depends on the aggressiveness, the prevalence of the tumor, as well as on the age and general condition of the body. In the first stages with a non-aggressive tumor, the prognosis is favorable.

Therefore, doctors recommend that all men over the age of 40 undergo a regular examination for the development of oncology.

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Stage 2.3 prostate cancer can be cured if the size of the neoplasm is small, there is a one-sided lesion of the organ, there is no germination in the seminal vesicles, nerve trunks. According to statistics, about 80% of men in the second stage of cancer are completely healed. With an illness of stage 3, the prognosis is less favorable.

In this case, it is highly likely that the tumor managed to release distant metastases. They can manifest themselves after a time after radiation therapy, surgery. After treatment, experts recommend carefully monitoring the PSA.

Active surveillance

In some men, due to age or related health problems, treatment can lead to complications and side effects that are more serious than problems caused by the cancer itself. In such cases, the doctor may adhere to active observation. Such tactics are possible in the following cases:

  • The patient does not experience symptoms.
  • The tumor is predicted to grow slowly.
  • The tumor is small.
  • Cancer does not spread beyond the prostate gland.

The tactics of active observation involves examinations by a doctor and blood tests for prostate-specific antigen every six months. Once a year, a doctor may prescribe a prostate biopsy.

Surgical treatment of prostate cancer

In prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is performed - an operation during which the prostate gland and surrounding tissues, including seminal vesicles, are removed.

Radical prostatectomy can be performed in various ways:

  • Postpartum prostatectomy performed through a longitudinal section from the navel to the pubis. Usually the patient is discharged from the clinic a few days after surgery, the recovery period lasts several weeks.
  • With perineal prostatectomy make an arcuate incision between the scrotum and anus. This operation is faster compared to the posterolateral prostatectomy, but during it access to the lymph nodes is difficult, and it often leads to problems with erection.
  • Laparoscopic prostatectomy performed using special tools through punctures in the abdominal wall. It is accompanied by less bleeding and less tissue trauma compared to open interventions, and the recovery period is shortened. But the risk of complications is about the same.
  • Robotic prostatectomy conducted using the da Vinci robot. In fact, this is the same laparoscopic intervention, but the surgeon does not hold the instruments himself, but controls the movements of the robot through a special remote control. Thanks to this, the movements of the instruments are more accurate. But there is no evidence that this helps reduce the risk of complications.

Possible complications after radical removal of the prostate: urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, slight shortening of the penis, inguinal hernia, infertility, lymphedema (edema due to removal of the lymph nodes).

Chemotherapy for prostate cancer

Chemotherapy is not the main treatment for prostate cancer, but it can sometimes be useful. Chemotherapy is prescribed in combination with hormonal drugs or in cases where hormone therapy does not work.

In prostate cancer, drugs are used: docetaxel, cabazitaxel, mitoxantrone, estramustine.

Stages and features of the course of prostate cancer

The prostate gland is a small organ (the size of a ping-pong ball) located at the base of the bladder. Its main function is the synthesis of the secret, which is part of the sperm, and participation in the process of ejaculation.

Prostate cancer implies the appearance and increase in size of a tumor capable of rapid growth and metastasis (transfer of malignant cells to other organs and tissues). This disease can occur at any age, but in the vast majority of cases it is diagnosed in men over 60 years of age.

Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer among men in Russia after lung cancer and stomach cancer. It is found in one of fifteen men over 40 years old. Every year in the world, malignant prostate tumors are diagnosed in a million people, and about one in three of them die due to this pathology.

Why does prostate cancer develop? It is known that this is associated with changes in the hormonal background, genetic predisposition, malnutrition and the impact of some other factors, the role of which is still not fully established.
From the moment the first cancer cell appears to the development of symptoms that lead the man to a consultation with a doctor, usually several years pass. For this reason, often the patient is seen by an oncologist with a neglected, overgrown tumor that is difficult to cure.

In total, it is customary to distinguish four stages of prostate cancer:

  • Stage 1 characterized by small tumor sizes, the absence of involvement of lymph nodes in the pathological process (cancer cells can get there with lymph flow) and the patient's well-being. As a rule, at this stage, prostate cancer is detected by chance - during the treatment of another disease of the gland. The prognosis for the life of the patient is favorable; therapy does not take much time.
  • 2 stage Prostate cancer means that the neoplasm has increased in size. It can be probed - during a rectal examination (the prostate is adjacent to the front wall of the rectum, so the doctor can reach it with a finger). In this case, the symptoms of the disease are often still not manifested. Therefore, it is so important to regularly undergo a preventive examination by a urologist. About 80% of patients whose prostate cancer was diagnosed in stage 2 recover.
  • 3 stage The disease is characterized by the growth of the tumor beyond the envelope of the prostate. Cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes of the pelvis and in some neighboring organs. At this point, the patient usually feels discomfort: urination is disturbed due to the deformation of the gland, pain in the perineum appears. Surgery is no longer enough to defeat a tumor, which is why oncologists often use combined tactics, combining different approaches to the destruction of cancer cells. The survival rate at this stage of prostate cancer is less than 40%.
  • 4th stage implies that, in addition to the prostate, the cancer has affected distant organs or lymph nodes. Metastases can be found in bones, lungs, liver, etc. If the patient is an elderly person with severe chronic diseases, doctors will decide to abandon the operation in favor of gentle methods of therapy that will prolong the life and alleviate the suffering of the patient, although they will not help to defeat cancer .

Selecting a Country for Prostate Cancer Therapy

As you know, the oncological branch of medicine is very developed in many countries of Asia and Europe. But the best choice is Israel. This is due to the high level of health care, which is controlled by the state, and at the same time relatively low prices (30-50% lower than in America and Europe).

However, organizing a trip for treatment in Israel on your own is not easy. Especially considering that you can not lose precious time. The Top Ichilov Clinic is ready to take on the entire organization of the trip: the staff will purchase tickets, provide a transfer, offer convenient accommodation options, including near the clinic, arrange consultations and examinations, and help throughout the treatment. And it’s possible to go to Israel for treatment as soon as possible after contacting the “Top Ichilov”.

Another advantage of the clinic is the availability of modern high-tech equipment and, as a result, the high accuracy of cancer diagnosis. Top Ichilov’s specialists, including professors, presidents and board members of professional associations in Europe and the USA, are attentive to each patient and are ready to continue the accompaniment after completing the course of treatment. The team of specialists "Top Ikhilov" has doctors of various profiles who have achieved high results in their field.

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

It is known that male sex hormones - androgens - stimulate the growth of prostate cancer. The goal of hormone therapy is to lower the level of androgens in the body or to prevent their interaction with cancer cells.

Hormone therapy stops the growth of the tumor for a while. As a monotherapy, she is not able to cure. Indications for her appointment:

  • The presence of contraindications for surgical treatment and radiation therapy.
  • Common prostate cancer when surgery and radiation therapy are ineffective.
  • In aggressive tumors, when the risk of relapse is high, hormone therapy is prescribed along with radiation therapy.
  • It can also be prescribed before radiation therapy to inhibit tumor growth and improve treatment outcomes.

Stage 4 Prostate Cancer Treatment

In stage IV, prostate cancer spreads to the bladder, rectum, lymph nodes, distant metastases appear in the bones and various organs. But even at this stage, depending on the prevalence of the process, remission can sometimes be achieved. In cases when the cancer is incurable, palliative treatment will help to restrain its growth for a while and prolong the patient's life.

Typically, treatment for stage 4 prostate cancer includes the following:

  • Hormone therapy, in some cases, in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Surgery. If the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes and there are no metastases removed, a radical prostatectomy can be performed. Other times to fight
  • with symptoms resort to palliative intervention - transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
  • If the patient is contraindicated in all types of treatment, and he has no pronounced symptoms, active observation is possible.

Treatment of metastases of prostate cancer in the bone

If bone metastases are detected, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy are prescribed. Кроме того, в лечении метастаз в кости при раке простаты применяют бифосфонаты (препараты, которые замедляют разрушение кости), деносумаб (тот же эффект, что у бифосфонатов, но другой механизм действия), препараты гормонов коры надпочечников (уменьшают боли), обезболивающие средства.

Benefits of Prostate Cancer Treatment at the European Clinic

The main differences of the European clinic:

  • We always act in the interests of the patient. When a doctor chooses treatment methods, he strives to achieve the maximum effect with minimal risks for the patient.
  • A team of doctors works with a patient in a European clinic: a clinical oncologist, oncourologist, chemotherapist, and oncologist-radiologist.
  • Prostatectomy is a serious intervention. We care about the safety of patients, therefore, before a surgical intervention, a thorough examination is carried out, the patient is consulted by a therapist, neurologist, cardiologist, anesthetist-resuscitator.
  • You can get a second opinion from reputable doctors from Europe, Israel, and the USA.
  • We treat prostate cancer in Moscow according to international protocols, in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine.

Patient Testimonials on Prostate Cancer Treatment at the European Clinic

I have been under observation at the district clinic for many years and was ready for the fact that sooner or later I will find prostate cancer. He was with my grandfather and father. They both died not from him, but still quite alarming. So, six months ago, tumor markers did show a tumor. I chose the clinic exclusively on the Internet, compiled a list of five, in my opinion, the best, and then phoned. As a result, he stopped at the European clinic. When I arrived at the reception, it immediately became somehow calm. I was received by Avetis Agvanovich, very thoroughly and in detail explained my diagnosis, his prospects and methods of treatment. It’s immediately obvious that the specialist knows the question “perfectly”. Did some tests and procedures. They didn’t cut it yet. It may not have to. Now I am completely in control of the situation, I know for sure what is going on there, and most importantly, I know for sure that there is an excellent doctor who remembers me personally and is ready to respond at any moment. Thank you, Avetis Agvanovich, and until the next inspection! Igor Andreevich Shch.